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Fifth Business Reader’s Guide
Fifth Business Reader’s Guide
Category: Literary Fiction | Fiction Classics | Historical Fiction
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Questions and Topics for Discussion
One of the most ambitious works of fiction of the twentieth century, Robertson Davies’s Deptford Trilogy reaches from rural Canada to the Swiss Alps and introduces a cast of characters as varied and fascinating as any in recent literature. It is a work of towering intellect, exploring ideas of good and evil, history and identity, truth and illusion, art and mysticism, and much more. But at the center of each of the three novels—Fifth Business, The Manticore, and World of Wonders—is a theme that connects the trilogy’s many intertwining stories: the need to recover a genuine experience of the marvelous, a sense of wonder, in a world from which it has been all but banished.
Each of the main characters in the three novels—Dunstan Ramsay, David Staunton, and Magnus Eisengrim—narrates his life story. And in the course of each of these interrelated stories, we find a common desire for a mythical or magical world that exists within the confines of ordinary, rationalist, desacralized modern society. In Fifth Business, Dunstan Ramsay, history teacher and hagiographer, finds access to the marvelous through his study of saints and their miracles. He delights in “pointing out the mythical elements that seem to . . . underlie our apparently ordinary lives” (Fifth Business, p. 38), and feels certain that Mrs. Dempster, the mother of Paul Dempster (aka Magnus Eisengrim), whom others consider morally degenerate and mentally deficient, is in fact a saint. David Staunton, a highly successful criminal lawyer, embodies a thoroughly rationalist belief system. As a law student he takes his teacher’s advice and puts his “emotions in cold storage.” He eliminates from himself all the messy feelings that so often get his clients into trouble. Nevertheless, after his father’s sudden and mysterious death, he undergoes Jungian analysis—and a perilous descent to the underworld—to reconnect both with his emotions and with humanity’s mythic past. The trilogy’s most enigmatic character, the magician Magnus Eisengrim, both enacts and elicits a sense of wonder, as he satisfies “a hunger that almost everybody has for marvels” (The Manticore, p. 242). Indeed, Magnus’s greatest work of magic is his own self-transformation, from a shy, abused, and outcast boy growing up in a small Canadian village to the greatest magician in the world. He is an exemplar of what his friend and manager Lisel calls the “Magian World View,” which prevailed in the Middle Ages and which is based on a “sense of the unfathomable wonder of the invisible world that existed side by side with a hard recognition of the roughness and cruelty and day-to-day demands of the tangible world” (World of Wonders, p. 293).
Around this central theme, Robertson Davies spins a story, or rather a multitude of stories, that illuminate the human condition with uncommon brilliance. The novels themselves, written with extraordinary wit, charm, and intelligence, are wonders to behold. In this sense, Davies not only points his readers to a world of marvels and mysteries, he gives us one.
ABOUT ROBERTSON DAVIES
Robertson Davies (1913–1995) had three successive careers during the time he became an internationally acclaimed author: actor, publisher, and, finally, professor at the University of Toronto. The author of twelve novels and several volumes of essays and plays, he was the first Canadian to be inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Letters.
QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
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A Comparison of the Main Characters in Fifth Business by Robertson Davies
Essay about Archetypal Fifth Business
Assignment 4: Archetypal Critical response
The second quotation is greatly significant in the novel as it references a major turning point in the events of the story and in Dunny’s life. The quotation juxtaposes both death and new life. Moreover, the vision and Mary’s face is an inspiration to Dunny. Throughout the second part of the novel, Robertson Davies illustrates Dunny’s experience of war being nothing like he expected. “ It was the boredom that comes of having to perform endless tasks that have no savour and acquire skills one would gladly be without” (Davies, 61). Dunny joined the war in order to find a deep sense of purpose, however, he finds fear and a grotesque physical world. In this quotation, he discovers renewed spiritual enlightenment. Furthermore, this quote demonstrates Mrs.Dempster’s substantial role in the novel. Throughout the novel, Mary Dempster is viewed as a biblical figure. Primarily, she brings Willie back from the dead. Further in the novel, she saves Dunny while at war. In addition, she was also referred to as the “woman who turned me to God” (Davies, 125) by the tramp who she was caught cheating on her husband with. By mentioning her in that quotation, the author stresses her significant role in both the novel and in Dunny’s life.
In this quotation Dunny is at the ordeal stage in the archetypal hero’s journey. The ordeal stage represents the point where the hero faces death and is on the brink of failure. According to Christopher Volger’s book entitled Mythic Structures for Writers, the ordeal stage is “the central, essential, and magical stage of any journey. Through “death” the Hero can be reborn, experiencing a resurrection that grants greater powers or insight to see the Journey to the end”. In this passage, Dunny is facing death and fear due to the blow of the shrapnel. In addition, he states that he wants to quit as he no longer wanted to be part of the war. However, when he sees the face of Mrs.Dempster on the statue of the virgin and child, he is inspired and ‘reborn’. This enlightenment gives him the power and insight to complete his journey.
Dunny’s story aligns perfectly with the various archetypal stages in the hero’s journey. The first stage is the ordinary world, which is represented by Dunny’s childhood and the incident of Mrs.Dempster’s premature labor. This incident provides the reader with great insight regarding the character of Dunny and the society in which he resides in. The second stage is the call to adventure, which is illustrated through the enlistment of Dunny to the war. Dunny signs up to fight overseas, even though he is underage, because he wants to break free from his mother. However, when he gets there, he realizes that the war was not what he was expecting. This results in him regretting his decision and in many instances in the novel, he desired to go back home, which represents the third stage; refusing the call. Moreover, the third stage could be demonstrated though the fact the Dunny doesn’t feel like a hero, even though he played a vital role in winning the battle of Passchendaele. As the reader advances though the novel, more stages of the hero’s journey will be illustrated through various major events. There are several key archetypal figures in the novel. Mrs.Dempster represents the mother figure, while Boy Staunton represents the persona of the rich businessman and also represents temptation. Paul Dempster is clearly the magic figure. Furthermore, Mrs.Dempster is perceived as the enemy and demon by the town people, which represents the archetypal shadow (Jungian Archetypes In Fifth Business, Bluevale).
I believe that the quest for enlightenment is present in everyone’s lives. Our goals, dreams, and whether we achieve these goals or not, are what form the people we fundamentally are. In life, we always have a goal, whether that goal might be academically related, personal, relationship wise, etcetera. In order to achieve these long and/or short term goals…
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